Winnipeg Free Press - PRINT EDITION

Gas made from air, water fuel of future

  • Print

Stockton-on-Tees, a small city in northeastern England, has only one claim to fame: The first railway tracks were made and laid in the city in 1822, and the first-ever train ran on those tracks in 1825. But it might one day have another claim, also related to transportation: A locally based start-up company called Air Fuel Synthesis has just produced the first gasoline from air and water.

It isn't a lot of gasoline -- five litres (one gallon) in two months -- but Peter Harrison, the company's chief executive, hopes within two years they will build a larger plant producing a tonne a day. He envisages refinery-scale operations within 15 years.

"We've taken carbon dioxide from air and hydrogen from water and turned these elements into petrol," Harrison told a conference at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in London. Since the carbon dioxide that goes into the air when this fuel is burned exactly equals the amount that was taken out of the air when it was fabricated, it is a carbon-neutral fuel. Provided, of course, the electricity used in the process comes from renewable sources.

No wonder people who worry about global warming are excited about this breakthrough -- but they should get excited slowly. The question was never if you could create a complex hydrocarbon such as gasoline from just air and water, but how much it costs to do it, compared to just pumping oil out of the ground and refining it.

The answer in the past has been: far too much. Splitting water molecules to get hydrogen is expensive in terms of the electricity required. Carbon dioxide is easily available as the by-product of burning coal or oil, but using that CO2 as the feedstock for artificial gas only postpones the moment when it gets into the atmosphere by a few days or weeks.

If you want a truly carbon-neutral fuel, then the carbon dioxide you use must come straight from the air. Prototype machines have been built (by Klaus Lackner of Columbia University and David Keith of the University of Calgary) that can extract CO2 from the air in industrial quantities, but the price per tonne at the moment is about $600.

That's far too much, but as Lackner points out, the cost of any new technology plunges steeply once it goes into volume production. And the cost of getting hydrogen from water may also drop dramatically. Daniel Nocera of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has developed a catalyst made from cobalt and phosphorus that can split water at room temperature.

"I'm using cheap, Earth-abundant materials that you can mass-manufacture," Nocera said in 2008. "As long as you can charge the surface, you can create the catalyst, and it doesn't get any cheaper than that." So if the hydrogen is cheap, and the cost of extracting carbon dioxide from the air also falls dramatically, how much would it cost to combine them into gasoline?

That's what Air Fuel Synthesis is working on: an integrated, scalable industrial process that takes carbon dioxide from the air and hydrogen from water, combines them into methanol, and then turns that into petrol.

Peter Harrison is cagey about his current production cost per litre: at the "proof-of-principle" stage, everything costs a fortune. But as he told The Independent in a recent interview, "You're in a marketplace where the only way is up for the price of fossil fuel. At some point there will be a crossover where our fuel becomes cheaper."

David Keith sees it the same way. "You're selling this fuel, and they're burning it, putting carbon in the air, but then you're recapturing the same amount of carbon and selling it to them again. That's a business model that could conceivably take a whack at the global transportation market, which is the hardest part of the climate problem to attack."

Maybe Harrison's process will not win the race to capture that market. Maybe the cheaper option will be to grow green algae in wastewater or saltwater, crush it to extract the oil from it, and then refine the oil into gasoline, diesel and so on. (Exxon-Mobil is spending about $100 million a year to develop that process.) But one way or another, the petrol we put in our vehicles in 25 years' time will probably not come out of the ground.

An entire industry employing millions of people, and the national budgets of entire countries, and much of the military planning by the world's great powers, all rest on the assumption this will never happen. Of course it will. The pressure to cut greenhouse gas emissions will grow as the temperature rises, and the desire for "energy independence" will only get stronger as oil price rises.

Back in the 1890s, it was still unclear whether the new "horseless carriages" would ultimately be powered mainly by gasoline, steam or electricity. But it was already clear to those with any understanding of the interactions between markets and technology that the day of the horse-and-buggy was over, and the smart money was already getting out of buggy whips.

 

Gwynne Dyer is an independent journalist whose articles are published in 45 countries.

 

Republished from the Winnipeg Free Press print edition October 23, 2012 A11

Fact Check

Fact Check

Have you found an error, or know of something we’ve missed in one of our stories?
Please use the form below and let us know.

* Required
  • Please post the headline of the story or the title of the video with the error.

  • Please post exactly what was wrong with the story.

  • Please indicate your source for the correct information.

  • Yes

    No

  • This will only be used to contact you if we have a question about your submission, it will not be used to identify you or be published.

  • Cancel

Having problems with the form?

Contact Us Directly
  • Print

You can comment on most stories on winnipegfreepress.com. You can also agree or disagree with other comments. All you need to do is be a Winnipeg Free Press print or e-edition subscriber to join the conversation and give your feedback.

You can comment on most stories on winnipegfreepress.com. You can also agree or disagree with other comments. All you need to do is be a Winnipeg Free Press print or e-edition subscriber to join the conversation and give your feedback.

Have Your Say

New to commenting? Check out our Frequently Asked Questions.

Have Your Say

Comments are open to Winnipeg Free Press print or e-edition subscribers only. why?

Have Your Say

Comments are open to Winnipeg Free Press Subscribers only. why?

The Winnipeg Free Press does not necessarily endorse any of the views posted. By submitting your comment, you agree to our Terms and Conditions. These terms were revised effective April 16, 2010.

letters

Make text: Larger | Smaller

LATEST VIDEO

OT Glenn January and RB Nic Grigsby disappointed in loss to Riders

View more like this

Photo Store Gallery

  • Two baby tigers were unveiled at the Assiniboine Park Zoo this morning, October 3rd, 2011. (TREVOR HAGAN/WINNIPEG FREE PRESS)
  • Young goslings jostle for position to take a drink from a puddle in Brookside Cemetery Thursday morning- Day 23– June 14, 2012   (JOE BRYKSA / WINNIPEG FREE PRESS)

View More Gallery Photos

Poll

What do you think of the new Blue Bombers uniforms?

View Results

View Related Story

Ads by Google