VATICAN CITY -- A document obtained by The Associated Press on Friday shows Pope Benedict XVI defrocked nearly 400 priests in just two years for sexually molesting children.
The statistics for 2011 and 2012 show a dramatic increase from the 171 priests removed in 2008 and 2009, when the Vatican first provided details on the number of priests who have been defrocked. Prior to that, it only publicly revealed the number of alleged cases of sexual abuse it received and the number of trials it authorized.
While it's not clear why the numbers spiked in 2011, it could be because 2010 saw a new explosion in the number of cases reported in the media in Europe and beyond.
The document was prepared from data the Vatican had been collecting and was compiled to help the Holy See defend itself before a UN committee this week in Geneva.
Archbishop Silvano Tomasi, the Vatican's UN ambassador in Geneva, referred to just one of the statistics in the course of eight hours of often pointed criticism and questioning from the UN human rights committee.
The statistics were compiled from the Vatican's annual reports on the activities of its various offices, including the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which handles sex-abuse cases. Although public, the annual reports are not readily available or sold outside Rome and are usually found in Vatican offices or Catholic university libraries.
An AP review of the reference books shows a remarkable evolution in the Holy See's in-house procedures to discipline pedophiles since 2001, when the Vatican ordered bishops to send cases of all credibly accused priests to Rome for review.
Then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger took action after determining bishops around the world weren't following church law to put accused clerics on trial in church tribunals. Bishops routinely moved problem priests from parish to parish rather than subject them to canonical trials or report them to police.
For centuries, the church has had in-house procedures to deal with priests who sexually abuse children. One of the chief accusations from victims is bishops put the church's procedures ahead of civil law enforcement by often suggesting victims keep accusations quiet while they are dealt with internally.
The maximum penalty for a priest convicted by a church tribunal is essentially losing his job: being defrocked or removed from the clerical state. There are no jail terms and nothing to prevent an offender from reoffending.
According to the 2001 norms Ratzinger pushed through and subsequent updates, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith reviews each case sent to Rome, then instructs bishops how to proceed, either by launching an administrative process against the priest if the evidence is overwhelming or a church trial. At every step, the priest is allowed to defend himself.
The Congregation started reporting numbers only in 2005, which is where Tomasi's spreadsheet starts. UN officials said Friday the committee has not received the document.
By 2008, the tone of the Vatican's entry had changed. Ratzinger, now Pope Benedict XVI, travelled to the scandal-hit United States that year and is quoted in the annual report as telling reporters en route he was "mortified" by the scale of abuse and simply couldn't comprehend "how priests could fail in such a way."
That year's entry was also notable for another reason: For the first time, an official Vatican document made clear nothing in the church process precluded victims from reporting abuse to police.
There was also another first in 2008, a critical year as abuse lawsuits in the U.S. naming the Holy See as a defendant were heating up: For the first time, the Vatican revealed the number of priests who had been defrocked: 68. Some 191 new cases were reported.
The year 2010 was another milestone in the sex-abuse saga. The Congregation described new church laws put in place to more easily and quickly remove offending clerics.
By 2011, with the new streamlined laws in place, the number of defrocked priests rose dramatically: 260 priests were removed in only one year, while 404 new cases of child abuse were reported.
-- The Associated Press