WASHINGTON -- With U.S. President Barack Obama lobbying Congress to agree to the United States' punishing Syria for alleged use of chemical weapons, he must convince wary lawmakers that Syria's response won't lead to tit-for-tat retaliation that escalates the conflict.
Obama has repeatedly vowed a targeted attack won't seek to oust President Bashar Assad or aid the rebels, but the use of force often brings unintended consequences.
"Anyone who claims to have a crystal ball here doesn't," warned Paul Pillar, a former senior CIA official with responsibilities in the Middle East. "This does stir the pot in ways that increase the risk or chance of certain things happening, even though one can't place specific odds on it or make a specific prediction."
Pillar and other experts scoff at the notion of a surgical hit, noting military forays into Iraq, Libya and Afghanistan have all brought consequences of second and third order.
"This ought to remind people that it is very unlikely that anything we do in a limited way is going to be limited in the way we prefer," said Pillar, who now teaches at Georgetown University in the nation's capital.
Obama was asked about the potential for escalation at a press conference Friday in the Russian city of St. Petersburg. He attempted to downplay the chances but seemed to be making the point that anything can happen.
"Is it possible that Assad doubles down in the face of our action and uses chemical weapons more widely? I suppose anything is possible, but it would not be wise," Obama said. "At that point, mobilizing the international community would be easier, not harder."
Syria has many ways to respond to a U.S. attack. The Assad regime could strike back directly or through proxies, inside Syria and outside. Assad's most immediate way to punish American attacks could be to retaliate in a way that drives up oil prices, squeezing the already soft U.S. and European economies.
As tensions with Syria rose two weeks ago, the price of U.S. crude oil soared past $112 a barrel before edging back to a range between $107 and $109 a barrel. Traders justify the high prices as a "security" premium.
"What I'm concerned about is the retaliation to the retaliation. Mostly, we're concerned about it spilling over into attacks on Israel," said John Kilduff, an oil trader and partner in the hedge fund Again Capital.
Seeking to spike oil prices, Syria could strike at the pipeline in northern Iraq that connects with Turkey and the outside world.
"There are some real vulnerabilities on Syria's border that hang in the balance," said Kilduff, noting a sympathetic bomber in Saudi Arabia could send oil prices soaring. "Any kind of perceived threat to the (Saudi) royal family is just going to raise the security premium mightily."
Much depends on how threatened the Assad regime feels. If a strike does little to threaten Assad, it emboldens him. If Assad is threatened, it raises the stakes for retaliation as the very existence of the regime would then be at stake.
-- McClatchy Washington Bureau